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Unveiling The Past To Connect The Future...

On this page you will be introduced to FACTS, all documented and researched, which will be truly revealing and informative, as to the contributions of our forefathers. None of these facts should be offensive or itimidating to anyone, and that is not the intent. The only purpose is to "set the record straight", and paraphrasing the words of Carter G. Woodson, we have ALL been "miseducated". Anyway, no one should be offended by the truth!

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Check out these sites!

Most U.S. Blacks Are Native Americans

African American History

Black Voices

Celebrating Black History 365

Black Facts On Line

The Lemba, Black Jews of Southern Africa

More on the Lemba

Origin of Black History Month

Return To Glory

Black History Resources

African American Holocaust

Memorial Day-The True Story

Celebrating Black History 365 24/7

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So you really think that Abraham Lincoln freed the slaves?
I thought the same, until I read the Emancipation Proclamation. My reading of that document indicates still more exploitation. Only certain slaves in certain states and parts of other states were "freed", and then only to be conscripted into the military. It was against the law for slaves to be armed for fear of uprising. So in order to arm them and put them on the front line, they had to be "freed". In fact, the Proclamation says on its face that the Proclamation was a "FIT AND NECESSARY WAR MEASURE". Nothing to do with justice, fairness or any of that. As to those others not affected, the Proclamation states that their plight remained the same as if the Proclamation was never passed. Read the Proclamation for yourself and Click on the "Our Founding TRUTH" link below to see what Lincoln really thought about Blacks based upon statements made in other forums. Note, also, the very credible sources of those statements.

The Emancipation Proclamation

Our Founding TRUTH

Katherine Johnson Black NASA Mathematician

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Ronald K. Noble was elected Secretary General of INTERPOL (International Criminal Police Organization) by the 69th General Assembly in Rhodes, Greece in 2000, and was unanimously reelected toa second five-year term by the 74th INTERPOL General Assembly in Berlin, Germany, in 2005. He is the first American to hold the coveted position.  Mr. Noble is also a tenured professor at New York University School of Law, on leave of absence while serving as INTERPOL'S Secretary General. Mr. Noble served as a Law Clerk for the late Judge A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., formerly of the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, from 1982-1984, where he received the highest evaluation ever given to a Law Clerk by Judge Higginbotham. You will recall that Judge Higginbotham is the author of two well-researched and footnoted books entitled "In The Matter of Color" and "Shades of Freedom", both of which chronicle how the law was used to keep Blacks in bondage. Mr. Noble holds a Juris Doctorate Degree from Stanford University Law School, where he was Articles Editor for the Stanford Law Review, and a Bachelor's Degree in Economics and Business Administration from the University of New Hampshire.

You can't get a blood transfusion, stop at a traffic light, turn on a lamp, or even put on a pair of shoes without relying on technologies and devices invented and in some cases first patented by African Americans.

An incredible number of inventions which make our lives longer and more comfortable are those of African American inventors. Most of them were never attributed to their true inventors; some were claimed by others who took credit for them and made and still make loads of undeserved money; others were simply not mentioned at all, thereby triggering the systemic presumption that they were invented by someone not of color. When you visit the site below, you will find that the U.S. Patent Office, M.I.T., Princeton Univ., and other credible institutions have verified the authenticity of my claims. Notice also the dates of some of those inventions and patents, indicating that some of those African American inventors were either still slaves or just out of slavery. They did not learn those skills on the plantation. THEY BROUGHT THOSE TALENTS WITH THEM FROM AFRICA!

Click on the links below and see for yourself!

Index of African American Inventors-19th and 20th century

Black Inventors, A-Z

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Clarence Otis, Jr.

Meet Clarence Otis, Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of  Darden Restarants. You may not recognize Darden Restaurants, but you are probably familiar with Red Lobster, Olive Garden, Bahama Breeze, and Smokey Bones. Those are but some of the enterprises over which Mr. Otis has operational responsibility, with muli-billions of dollars in annual sales. Mr. Darden's first job was as a Restaurant Server at Los Angeles International Airport at age 17, for which he was paid $3.50 per hour. He grew up in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles and faced many challenges and obstacles. He recalls, though, that there were many prople in the community, including his parents, who believed that you could accomplish a great deal if you work hard, regardless of your circumstances.  To say that he "worked hard" is an understatement. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Williams College in 1977; a Law Degree from Stanford Law School in 1980; is a Trustee at Williams College; sets on numerous corporate boards, and is a member of the prestigious Phi Beta Kappa Society.  He has earned, and deserves, all of our respect and support. Anyone looking for a role model?

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Dr. Mark Dean is an  IBM Fellow, the first African-American to hold such position, and is currently a Vice President at IBM, as well.  Dr. Dean was resonsible for the Austin Research Laboratory, in Austin, Texas and was instrumental in the development of the first 1 gigahertz microprccessor. Dr. Dean received a BSEE degree from the University of Tennessee in 1979, a MSEE degree from Florida Atlantic University in 1982, and a Ph.D in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University in 1992.  Much of the success of the high-speed computers now in use is due to the contributions of Dr. Dean.

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Dr. Mark Dean

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I'LL BET YOU DIDN'T KNOW...


1. That the much heralded movie "The Count of Monte Christo"
is based upon a novel by ALEXANDRE DUMAS, whose grandmother, Marie-Cesette Dumas was a black slave from, Jeremie, Saint-Domingue (now part of Haiti). Alexandre grew up in Villers-Cotterets, and traveled to Paris when he was twenty years old and attempted to make a living as a lawyer. Dumas wrote hundreds of plays, novels, and travel diaries, among them, "The Count of Monte-Christo, "The Black Tulip", "The Three Musketeers" (yes!), "Queen Margot", "The Nutcracker" (yes! again), and others.

We have all either read, heard, or seen those works before, but I'll bet you never saw any reference to the author being Black. Now you know.

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2. That the first monument to Abraham Lincoln was not the Lincoln Memorial which sits on the Mall, but the Freedmen's Memorial Monument on Capitol Hill. The sculpture, which was dedicated in 1876, nearly 50 years before its famous counterpart, bears extra significance because it was paid for entirely through the donations of freed slaves. The initial gift was that of a Virginia slave woman, Charlotte Scott, who gave the first $5 she earned after being freed. The monument is located at Lincoln Park on East Capitol Street between llth and 13th Streets. For more information click below.

The Original Lincoln Monument

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3. That Hiram Revels, the son of former slaves became the first African American to serve in the United States Senate. Revels was elected in 1870 to fill the seat left vacant by (of all people) Jefferson Davis, a champion of slavery who had resigned from the Senate to become president of the Confederate States of America and to lead the South in the American Civil War (1861-1865). A former minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Revels was one of the first in a long history of Black "Preacher-Politicians".

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4. That in August 1983 Guion Bluford (top photo) became the first African American to go into space, while serving on a mission aboard the Challenger space shuttle. Bluford said that the blastoff of the shuttle was like riding in a high-speed elevator through a bonfire. He also recognized that, "From a Black perspective, my flight on the shuttle represented another step forward". Astronaut Mae Carol Jemison became the first African American woman to travel in space when she flew on the space shuttle Endeavor in a September 1992 mission.

5. That L. Douglas Wilder became the first African American to be elected Governor of the State of Virginia when Virginia voters chose him to lead their state in 1989. A decorated hero of the Korean War (1950-1953), Wilder began his political career as a Virginia State Senator (1969-1985) and later served as Virginia's Lieutenant Governor (1985-1989) before being elected Governor. His success as a Democrat in a largely white, Republican state stemmed from his position as a "healer" of racial strife, his moderate views on social policy, and his fiscal conservatism. During Governor Wilder's term as Governor, the State of Virginia, for the first time in its history, was acclaimed as the best fiscally run State in the Union for two successive years. Governor Wilder left a multi-million dollar surplus when he left office.

6. That Leroy Rountree Hassell, Sr. became the first African American Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia on February 10, 2003. Chief Justice Hassell is a graduate of Harvard Law School where he was a classmate of Virginia's Democratic Governor Mark Warner and is the 24th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia.
 
7. That there were three Popes known to be Black:
       Pope St. Victor - Elected in 189 A.D. He was deacon when he became Pope, a rarity then and now.  He established a set date for the celebration of Easter yearly.  He died a martyr for the faith in 199.
      Pope St. Militiades - Reigned as Pope from 311-314. He signed the emperor Constantine's famous Edict of Milan in 313, ending the persecutions, and making Christianity the established religion of the empire.  He was considered an excellent Pope, "a son of peace and father of Christians" according to St. Augustine.
      Pope St. Gelaius - Reigned from 492-496. Born in Rome, he was renowned for his holiness, kindness and scholarship.  He saved Rome from famine, composed a book of hymns for church use, was renowned for his concern for the poor and clarified church teaching on the Eucharist.
 
8.  That one of the most significant contributions by an African American slave in the construction of the Capitol was made by Philip Reid.

When construction of the Capitol began in 1793, Washington, D.C., was little more than a rural landscape with dirt roads and few accommodations beyond a small number of boarding houses. Skilled labor was hard to find or attract to the fledgling city. Enslaved laborers, who were rented from their owners, were involved in almost every stage of construction. Philip Reid may be the single best known enslaved person associated with the Capitol’s construction history.

Born around 1820, Reid was an enslaved laborer in the foundry run by the self-taught sculptor Clark Mills, who cast the Statue of Freedom. Mills was a former resident of South Carolina, where he had purchased Reid in Charleston for $1,200. Mills stated he purchased Reid, “many years ago when he was quite a youth... because of his evident talent for the business in which your petitioner was engaged, and paid twelve hundred dollars for him.” For the full story click on the link below or go to http://www.aoc.gov/philip-reid-and-statue-freedom

 Phillip Reid and the Capital Dome

 

 9. That African Americans created Memorial Day

The first widely publicized observance of a Memorial Day-type observance after the Civil War was in Charleston, South Carolina, on May 1, 1865. During the war, Union soldiers who were prisoners of war had been held at the Charleston Race Course; at least 257 Union prisoners died there and were hastily buried in unmarked graves. Together with teachers and missionaries, black residents of Charleston organized a May Day ceremony in 1865, which was covered by the New York Tribune and other national papers. The freedmen cleaned up and landscaped the burial ground, building an enclosure and an arch labeled, "Martyrs of the Race Course." Nearly ten thousand people, mostly freedmen, gathered on May 1 to commemorate the war dead. Involved were about 3,000 school children newly enrolled in freedmen's schools, mutual aid societies, Union troops, black ministers, and white northern missionaries. Most brought flowers to lay on the burial field. Today the site is used as Hampton Park. Years later, the celebration would come to be called the "First Decoration Day" in the North.

David W. Blight a Professor of History at Yale University described the day:

"This was the first Memorial Day. African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina. What you have there is black Americans recently freed from slavery announcing to the world with their flowers, their feet, and their songs what the war had been about. What they basically were creating was the Independence Day of a Second American Revolution.”



Timeline: Highlights of African American History

Black History Month is an opportunity to officially celebrate the key roles that African Americans have played in our country's history. It is fashionable for corporate America and others who are otherwise silent on the issue to tout, during this month, all they are doing to promote our cause. It is up to us, however to ensure that our story is told accurately and to keep it alive and relevant. Because we have left that responsibility to others, we have become victims of omission, distortion, and revision of our history. The following timeline, which will be updated from time to time, highlights just some of the chapters in this story.

1619: A Dutch frigate brings 20 African indentured servants to Jamestown, Virginia, the first Africans known to set foot in England's North American colonies.

1676: Black slaves join white indentured servants in an armed uprising against Native Americans and the colonial government of Virginia; the incident will become known as Bacon's Rebellion.

1773: Phillis Wheatley, a slave in Boston Massachusetts, published "Poems on Various Subjects", the first book published by an African American woman.

1786: Philadelphia Quakers help fugitive slaves from Virginia reach freedom, in what is probably the first "run" on the Underground Railroad

1807: Britain and the United States abolish the slave trade, effective January 1808, although slavery itself will continue in British colonies until 1833 and the American south until 1863.

1831: Slave Nat Turner leads a rebellion that lasts three days and kills 57 whites (including his owner) before it is suppressed.

1839: African slaves held captive aboard the slave ship L'Armistad launch a rebellion.

1847: Abolitionist Fredereick Douglass publishes the first issue of his weekly newspaper, North Star, "wielding my pen, as well as my voice" for "my enslaved and oppressed people".

1849: Harriet Tubman escapes slavery, and soon undertakes daring trips back into the South to liberate other slaves.

1851: Sojourner Truth, noted African American abolitionist, women's rights advocate, and religious visionary, delivers her groundbreaking feminist speech, "Ain't I a Woman?"

1862-63: P.B.S. Pinchback became the first Black Governor when he served as temporary Governor of Louisiana for 36 days while the sitting Governor was being impeached.

1863: President Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation, liberating slaves in the states rebelling against the Union.

1865: "Juneteenth", the commemoration of the  abolition of slavery in Texas was born.  It was on June 19, 1865, two months after the Union victory in the Civil War, and two years after the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln, when Maj. General Gordon Granger read a proclamation in Galvestonk Texas, informing the slave population that they were free. For more information on Juneteenth visit "www.juneteenth.com". 

1868: African Americans gain expanded civil rights when the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, although many of its provisions will not be enforced until the 20th Century.

1881: Booker T. Washington establishes Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University), the first U.S. institution of higher learning to have a black faculty.

1903: W.E. Du Bois publishes "The Souls of Black Folk", advocating the artistic and expressive strengths-the soul-of African American culture.

1909: The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded as a bi-racial organization committed to fighting racial discrimination and segregation.

1911: The National Urban League is founded in New York City to help African Americans find housing, employment, and education in northern cities.

1914: Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League, a pan-Africanist organization that will win support from thousands of Blacks across the United States and in other countries.

1915: Floods, cotton crop failures, and a reactivated Ku Klux Klan motivate Southern rural African Americans to relocate to the North in search of employment, a process that will become known as the Great Migration.

1931: The Nation of Islam (initially known as the Temple of Islam) is founded by Wallace D. Fard.

1932: Duke Ellington records the jazz classic "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing".

1936: Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany.

1942: James L. Farmer and George Houster founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to challenge racial segregation through organized, nonviolent protest.

1947: Jackie Robinson signs with the Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming the first African American to play major league baseball in modern times.

1951: The National Basketball Association opens its ranks to African Americans, allowing Chuck Cooper to sign with the Boston Celtics.

1951: Lillie Mae Bradford was convicted of "disorderly conduct" for walking to the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama and asking for a bus transfer. Fifty six years later,in 2007, The "Rosa Parks Act" was passed allowing Mrs. Bradford to be pardoned.

1954: The Supreme Court rules in Brown V. Board of Education that the "separate but equal" doctrine allowing racial segregation has "no place in the field of public education".

1955: Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery Alabama bus to a white person, spurring the Montgomery bus boycott.

1955: Emmett Till, a 14-year old Black boy is lynched in Money, Miss. for allegedly whistling at a white woman.

1957: Nine Black students, escorted by the National Guard, desegregate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.

1959: Miles Davis and his band record "Kind of Blue", which will become one of the most influential and popular recordings in jazz history.

1960: Four Black college students hold a sit-in at segregated Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C.

1960: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee is formed.

1961: The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)sends young "freedom riders" on missions to challenge Jim Crow laws in the South.

1963: More than 250,000 people from all over the United States participate in the March on Washington, led by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr,demanding civil rights and economic equality for African Americans. His "I have a Dream" speech became the rallying cry of all fair-minded Americans, and still resonates.

1963: NAACP Field Secretary Medgar Evers, then 37 is murdered in Jackson, Mississippi. Byron De LaBeckwith was convicted for the murder in 1964.

1963: Four Black girls are killed in the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, a site of civil rights meetings. Riots followed.

1964: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964, banning discrimination in voting, education, employment, and public accommodations.

1964: "Freedom Summer", a program to register Black southern voters, begins. Activists James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner were killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi and buried in a mud bank.

1965: Malcolm X is assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem just as he is about to address 400 followers.

1965: "Bloody Sunday" in Selma, Alabama; 50 people marching for voting rights for Blacks are injured by police.

1965: Voting Rightrs Act of 1965 passed.

1966: The Black Panther Party is founded in Oakland, California to combat police brutality against Blacks.

1968: The Civil Rights Act of 1968 is signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson.

1968: Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in Memphis, Tennesee.

1969: The Nixon administration develops the first affirmative action program, requiring that contractors on federally assisted projects set specific goals for hiring minorities.

1971: Jesse Jackson founds Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity)in Chicago for the economic advancement of poor people.

1973: Marian Wright Edelman founds the Children's Defense Fund, an organization that lobbies for children's rights and welfare.

1977: "Roots", the serialization of Alex Haley's
story of generations of his African and African American family, becomes the most popular television program in history.

1982: Michael Jackson releases "Thriller", which will become the best-selling pop album of all time.

1983: Harold Washington is sworn in as the first African American mayor of Chicago.

1983: President Ronald B. Reagan signs legislation establishing Martin Luther King, Jr Day. The first observance was in January, 1986.

1987: Colin L. Powell became the first African American to serve as National Security Advisor, appointed by President George H. W. Bush. He left that position to advance to the position of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1989.

1987: Toni Morrison publishes her novel "Beloved", which is immediately hailed as a major literary achievement and will win her a Pulitzer Prize in 1988.

1988: Congress overrides President Reagan's veto and passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act.

1989: General Colin Powell becomes the first African American to serve as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

1990: L. Douglas Wilder became the first elected Black Governor when he was elected Governor of the State of Virginia on January 13, 1990.

1992: Illinois congresswoman Carol Moseley-Braun becomes the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate.

1995: Approximately 900,000 African American men come to the Million Man March in Washington, D.C. to draw attention to the social conditions of African Americans and to urge African American men to assume control over their lives.

2001: Colin L. Powell became the 65th Secretary of State and the highest ranking African American government official in the history of the United States. He was nominated by George W. Bush on December 16, 2000 and unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate

2001: Condoleezza Rice becomes the first woman and second African American (after Colin Powell) to hold the office of U.S. National Security Advisor.

2003: Leroy Rountree Hassell,  Sr. becomes the first African American to serve as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia. He is the 24th person to hold that position.

2004: Barack Obama (D. Illinois) is elected to the Senate of the United States and delivers the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. Obama is only the second Black elected to the Senate since Reconstruction.

2005: Condoleeza Rice, appointed by President George W. Bush, became the first African American female to be appointed to serve as Secretary of State, again succeeding Colin L. Powell.

2005: Navy Captain Bruce E. Grooms is selected as the first Black Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy, a position similar to Dean of Students at a civilian university. Grooms received the 2000 National Society of Engineers Golden Torch Award for Lifetime Service. This is a BIG DEAL considering that not too long ago Blacks were not admitted to any of the service academies.

2005: After a delay of fifty years, Edgar Ray Killen, now 80 years old is convicted for the murder of Emmett Till in 1955. Unfortunately, Emmett's mother, Mamie Till Mobley, who fought unceasingly for justice for her son died on January 5, 2003. JUSTICE DELAYED IS JUSTICE DENIED!!

2006: Coretta Scott King, widow of the late Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. died on January 31, 2006 at age 78. Coretta Scott King devoted her life to continuing the work of her slain husband and was a pillar of the Civil Rights Movement. After Martin Luther King Jr. was killed in 1968, Coretta Scott King committed her life to raising their four children and seeing that his hope for the country would come true. "I'm more determined than ever that my husband's dream will become a reality", she said shortly after his death. She also worked to have her husband's birthday declared a National Holiday.

2007: Deval Patrick is sworn in as Governor of Massachusetts on January 4, 2007 becoming only the second elected Black Governor in U.S. History.

2008: David Paterson became New York's first Black chief executive when he was sworn in as Governor on March 17, 2008 by New York State Chief Justice Judith Kaye in Albany New York. Paterson, who is legally blind, becomes the second Black Governor to take office by succession rather than by election. L. Douglas Wilder became the first elected Black Governor when he was elected Governor of the State of Virginia on January 13, 1990. The second elected Black Governor was Deval Patrick, who was elected Governor of Massachusetts on January 4, 2007. The first Black Governor was P.B.S. Pinchback, who served as temporary Governor of Louisiana for 36 days in 1872-73 while the sitting Governor was being impeached.

2008: Barack Hussein Obama, Senator from Illinois,  became the first African American of either political party to win the Primary and become the Democratic nominee for President of the United States.

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